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Adits
Adits are tunnels driven into coal seams from surface exposure of the coal. They are usually undertaken in order to obtain a representative bulk sample (6 10 tonnes) of raw coal beyond the seams surface exposure where the coal is often oxidized or weathered.

Ash Content
Laboratory measurements of the amount of sediment deposited with vegetation (carbonaceous material) while a coal seam was formed. Ash content within a coal seam may consist of thin bands of visible sediments such as mudstones or be non visible sediments distributed within the seam.

Bulk Samples
Bulk samples of coal are required to obtain certain types of testing which requires more coal sample than is normally provided by drill core, the most common being a bulk washing test.

Calorfic Value
A laboratory measurement of how much heat is generated when a specific amount of coal is burned. It is the most important quality parameter in establishing price for thermal coals with higher calorfic value receiving higher prices. British measure uses BTU or British Thermal Units while Metric System (S.I.) uses KCAL or kilocalaries. Increasing ash and moisture content detracts from the heating values of coal.

Carbonization Tests
Tests which are undertaken on product coking coal in Pilot Scale Coke ovens which simulate the much larger Coke Ovens used to make Coke from the coal at steel mills. Numerous quality parameters are obtained in order to assess the most critical parameters required by steel mills the most important of which is the Coke Strength. Bulk samples of coal are normally required to provide sufficient product coal for Carbonization testing.

Coke
When coking coals are subjected to intense heat (Carbonization), gasses (Volatiles) are driven off leaving a sponge like matrix of carbon referred to as Coke

Coke Strength
A key component in Carbonization testing, coke strength is a measure of how well the coke from a subject property withstands degradation when tumbled in a specific drum for specified time period. Over the past 10 years many steel mills have opted to subject the coke to high heat in a Nitrogen environment prior to undertaking the Tumbler test. This is refereed to as Coke strength after reaction or CSR it is believed this test provides a better indication of how the coke behaves in blast furnaces and is therefore more indicative of the coals relative value.

Corellation Charts
Charts prepared to illustrate the detailed development and position of coal seams at various locations on a property intended to confirm the seams continuity as a guide to mine planning.

Diamond Drilling
A process involving tubular drill rods having diamond encrusted bits from which a solid core of both rock and coal is obtained from the strata being drilled.

Dip
The inclination of strata (including contained coal Seams) measured in degrees in a vertical plane which is 90 degrees from horizontali

Floor
A term referring to first strata forming the bottom of a coal seam

Free Swelling Index (FSI) A very simple test which simulates the formation of coke by heating specific amounts of coal in small crucibles to assess how much the coal swells during this heating process according to a standard template. The profile of the swelled coal or buttons range from values of 1 to 9

Geophysical Logging
The electronic measurement and recording of responses to rock and coal from instrumentation lowered down an open drill hole. The records (logs) provide a record of the detailed thickness of the various rock types and coal that has been drilled.

Inter Burden
Strata deposited between coal seams

Metallurgical (Coking) Coal
Coals which when subjected to heat will produce coke which in turn is mixed with iron ore in the production of steel in blast furnaces

Mining Section
The selection of specific coal thicknesses which are planned to be mined by open pit or underground mining equipment. Mining sections may include rock parting within the coal seams where they are considered to thin to be separately mined as waste during the mining process

Moisture Content
Moisture present naturally within the coal prior to mining is referred to as Inherent Moisture, during processing mined coal is mixed with water to facilitate the removal of unwanted rock and sediments and in turn dried to a Product Moisture as per sales contract specifications prior to loading onto trains for delivery to seaborne trade vessels

Normal Fault
Normal faults generally exhibit less displacement and occur at steeper angles than thrust faults. They are normally associates with local folding of the coal bearing strata and not related to major regional displacements such as is found with thrust faults

Oxidization
Oxidation normally occurs where coal seams outcrop to depths where seasonal temperature and moisture conditions are present.

Overburden
A reference to all non mined coal material including rock and soil found above and within a coal deposit It is commonly referred to by volume as Bank Cubic Meters (BCM)

Parting (In Cola Seam)
A parting is a visible thickness of rock found within a coal seam. Some partings may be included in a mining section planned for coal extraction while other thicker partings may be planned as material which will be mined separately as waste rock and not delivered with coal to process plants.

Petrpgraphic Analysis
Microscopic evaluation of the types of vegetation referred to as macerals which comprise a coal sample

PLYS (Splits)
When a coal seam contains a rock parting the coal sections above and below the parting are often referred to as plys

Rank of Coal
The rank of coal is an indication of the amount of heat and pressure placed on the coal seam. Higher rank (coking) coals have increasing amounts of carbon content and are usually associated with mountain building geological conditions typified by faulting and folding. Coals found on the Canadian prairies are generally lower ranked (Thermal) and deposited in more tranquil geological environment

Raw Coal
Coal which has not been subjected to any means of beneficiation by screens, rotary breakers or processing plants

Roof
The strata found immediately above a coal seam

Rotary Drilling
A drilling method in which a Tri cone bits break penetrated strata into small chipped particles which are brought to the surface by air or water. Coring of certain sections such as coal seams may be undertaken.

Strike
The direction of a horizontal surface placed on inclined strata usually measured in degree from North.

Thermal (Steam) Coal
Coal which generally does not have the characteristics to swell and make coke. It is used primarily for its heating value in the generation of steam in Electric power plants

Thrust Fault
Thrust faults are commonly found in mountainous areas and are generally exhibit relatively low angles and may have major displacements over hundreds of meters. Major thrust faults often demonstrate minor thrusts faults with less displacement which radiate from larger regional thrust faults

Trenching
Manual or mechanized removal of overburden or weathered coal undertaken to better expose the coal seam outcrop allowing for detailed measurements of coal seam thickness and components

Volatile Matter
Coal consists primarily of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen, the weight content of the latter 3 elements is referred to as Volatile content and is analysed by specified laboratory tests.

Washability Studies
Tests undertaken on drill core and bulk samples of raw coal to estimate how much rock may be removed from mixtures of coal and rock

Yield
A term referring to the amount of output (Product Coal) divided by the amount of feed (Run of Mine Coal) being processed in a coal preparation plant This measurement confirms the ammount by weight of rock which is removed from the coal which is delivered to a process plant.


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